656 Comments

For over 30 years, I have been traveling the world delivering intercultural negotiation, conflict resolution programs and have often found myself in war zones. It always seems that authoritarianism, strong man rule requires chaos to either take or remain in control. This pandemic seems the perfect opportunity for those interested in killing our democracy. Am I missing something to say that all the rights leaders are vaccinated? What does it matter if they lose thousands of their foot soldiers to the cause by continuing to create mayhem with the virus so they can distract from their real intent which is oligarchy…..

Expand full comment

It would matter if they were incapable of rigging elections. The thing that amazes me is the number of elected officials willing to sell us out, on the assumption they'll end up in their own little corner of Trump heaven. They fail to notice how he treats not only his voters, but also his minions.

Expand full comment

I’m just waiting for the GOP primaries for those guys to start overturning fair wins that they don’t like. Can’t wait for the squeals.

Expand full comment

Drump rules by his own emotions. Plain and simple. What pleases him today, may displease him by evening. And, his own emotions stem from extreme narcissism and sociopathy.

Expand full comment

That is a point well made. Thank you.

Expand full comment

Good point until the last word - we already have an oligarchy. And have had for quite some time now. Their real intent is authoritarianism.

Expand full comment

What we've had for some time now (like maybe since the founding of the republic) is more like a plutocracy. The wealthy rule, often by controlling the elected "rulers." Money talks louder than votes, and since votes remain necessary, anyone who points out economic power and economic imbalances is called a socialist or something similar. And no, it's not just the Republicans. One clue is how quickly some Democrats call other Democrats "socialist" in order to discredit them and their proposals.

Expand full comment

It is the Republican Party now. They have moved beyond being a cult to being the embodiment of authoritarianism.

Expand full comment

Oligarchs are authoritarians, no?

Expand full comment

I think of "authoritarian" as being primarily (?) an individual characteristic. Some teachers, parents, and bosses are described as authoritarian. "Authoritarian rule" could describe a dictatorship, or an absolute monarchy. "Oligarchy' is more about number: "-archy" comes from "rule" and "olig-" from "few." So oligarchy is rule by a few, monarchy is rule by one, and anarchy is rule by no one. ;-)

Expand full comment

Roughly:

the size of the group: Democracy = everyone, Oligarchs = a small fraction (eg the 1%), Auth = fewer

Auth is more hierarchical - tfg directs - states the lie for others to spread

Olig is a group of independents (groups of independents) with same goal

Olig = all big business execs & super-rich

Auth = leader & cronies

Expand full comment
Jan 17, 2022·edited Jan 17, 2022

Sometimes I think oligarchs are the followers of the authoritarian leader who willingly accept the financial incentives to keep that leader in power. You can't tell me that Guiliani, Bannon, Nixon lover, Cruz, Graham, and other Drump sycophants aren't waiting for the money.

Expand full comment

The oligarchs, and the super-wealthy in general, benefit from the laws and other conditions the authoritarian leader creates. That's definitely what's going on in Russia -- and in a way it's why wealthy landowners and others supported the tsar.

Expand full comment

A lot of them are in it for the financial gain and power over the "people." Right now they are using extreme manipulation, gaslighting, and fake promises. When they win, they will regulate the followers into submission by using those followers who are eager to use violence and aggression in name of the leader.

Expand full comment

Susan, Astute observation. Yes chaos and cruelty are the main strategies. Botton line is that it is all about personal power. No empathy or heartfelt concern for our fellow humans.

Expand full comment

And long-standing deep acculturation to patriarchy which is the largest superpower on the planet, time to dismantle that. Not good for any gender

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Chaos has benefitted the right wing, including the neocons ( hello Cheney senior ) forever. Halliburton, Bechtel, Carlisle Group, all benefit from disarray.

Expand full comment

Yes, if only Russia wasn’t waiting in the wings

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 16, 2022

I would prefer my government to serve the needs of the majority of people, not just billionaires, lobbyist, and an ever shrinking population of under served, uneducated, rural voters, made angry and resentful, by lies of a demagogue, and amplified by conservative media outlets, to sustain shrinking profit and power.

Expand full comment

Agreed - although you do stereotype residents of rural areas! (I live in country Queensland, an area not known for its intellectual profundity.)

Expand full comment
Jan 16, 2022·edited Jan 16, 2022

Oops!I didn’t mean to do that! I am also in a rural area! My grandfather was a farmer. His grandfather not being the oldest boy on their farm in Bavaria hopped on a freighter, and dug canals as an immigrant laborer for decades, saving just enough to acquire a homestead farm in the Midwest. Growing up, I think all the Midwest farmers were democrats and in the west through heavily subsidized water projects, farmers and ranchers of the west were Republicans. The isolation of both, and lack of equal funding in rural education has left both susceptible to demagoguery, fueling old resentments based on lies, sparking anger, seeking redemption through a strongman leader… the pattern is not a new one. My dirt farmer grandfather taught me that, and to never forget it.

Expand full comment

No offence taken! I'm an ex-urbanite myself. The truth of the matter is, I AM surrounded by idiots. I like to think of Queensland like a piece of raisin bread - vast tracts of abysmal ignorance dotted with small enclaves of intellectuals - the raisins.

Expand full comment

That’s the challenge to todays leaders. How to reach forgotten and isolated rural voters. Is their historical social research on how to decouple the rural populace from the populist demagogic “leader”? How to decouple grievance? How to decouple us and “them”? ( other than just pulling the plug on social media)

Expand full comment

Tried to fix it. How’d I do?

Expand full comment

Sehr interessant /very interesting

Expand full comment

The sad part is that many rural people are under educated for their intelligence. I taught for several years in a rural school. The people represent the intelligence spectrum, but the lack of education makes them very easily manipulated by politicians who use scare and anger tactics and then provide the only solutions to solving this anger and fear. Many don't know the difference between fact and fiction with topics they are ignorant in. They often use emotions to verify something as fact. Also, many don't know how to fact check or even understand that fact-checking is important. Add to that in many states rural America is mostly white. Then racial bias is easily grown.

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Terror management theory holds that the repressed fear of death drives all kinds of antisocial and reckless behavior. We are surrounded by reminders of death that the right wing exploits to the hilt in all kinds of ways (be afraid, be very afraid of Democrats, immigrants, etc. etc.) and makes this pandemic a perfect tool for authoritarians. For more, see https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/05/how-the-unrelenting-threat-of-death-shapes-our-behavior/256728/ And for more on terror management theory and Trump, see Scientific American, "Does Surging Existential Dread Help Trump?" https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/does-surging-existential-dread-help-trump/#

" Conceived decades ago by psychologists Sheldon Solomon, Jeff Greenberg and Tom Pyszczynski, terror-management theory holds that... become more attached to our belief systems, especially those that give us a sense of belonging to something greater than ourselves.We may thus become more patriotic and religious and less tolerant of those outside of our tribe, who do not share our values. We also become more likely to turn to ultra-confident, authoritarian leaders."

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

For a deeper dive into terror management theory, see the book "The Worm at the Core" by Solomon, et. al. (full disclosure: I helped write it.)https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jul/31/the-worm-at-the-core-on-the-role-of-death-in-life-solomon-greenberg-pyszczynski-review

Expand full comment

I just read the review at the link you provided. I will definitely read the book. But in the meantime, how do “chaoticians” and death fears work together?

Expand full comment

Naomi Klein's "Shock Doctrine" gets at it, but basically those who seek to get and hold power use fear, and especially existential fear, to do that.

Expand full comment

Thanks! I’ll check out the Klein book as well as yours!

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Rule by fear is their basic tenet. Keeping the “fear of disease” is an opportunity to deliver another populist “savior” strongman.

Expand full comment

Ignorance seems to be the progenitor of fear with fear then becoming the primogenitor for voting/supporting republicans, (e.g. stupidity), Eh!?

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Which came first - enlarged amygdalas or ignorance? Hard to tell.

Expand full comment

not sure if the earliest Hominidae were blessed with our amygdalas...but darn good reply!!!

Expand full comment

That's an interesting comment. When I look at people like Ted Cruz, Hawley, T. Carlson, all of whom have had "elite" educations, I begin to wonder what they were fed. They have been pampered since day one, put in private institutions, told they were destined for great things, and this is how they behave? These are not people I could ever look up to. My only hope is that they do not have any street smarts so that when the larger issues like Climate Change begin to catch up with us, they will be found cowering in the corner.

Expand full comment

Privilege comes with access to those schools. They don’t necessarily graduate with any added integrity, character, or awareness of their privilege.

Expand full comment

Cruz...Carlson...including tRump... elite educations can be easily diminished when tarnished by the greed factor's distractions, Eh!?

Expand full comment

Stewart Rhodes is a Yale educated lawyer. I would imagine that’s not being highlighted in the alumni mag.

Expand full comment

Consider the possibility that most of their "degrees" were bought and paid for by their families.

Expand full comment

Informative article on Politico about which group is most likely to spread disinformation …. People who score high on preference for chaos, eg, “burn down the government” sentiments!

Expand full comment

Their followers are cannon-fodder.

Expand full comment

Susan, Ive been pretty well convinced we already are an oligarchy. With this recent decision by the Supreme Court, and Citizens United, and voter suppression, how are we not already an oligarchy or at the least a corptocracy?

From your background, does the continued fear of disease increase or decrease the potential for conflict?

Expand full comment

Increase for sure! (I find myself calling it a "cleptocracy" these days.) Adversarial or win-lose conflict style greatly influenced by fear and lack of trust. And fundamental to a one-up, one-down patriarchal world order -- might makes right. I find the work being done on trauma may really help us move beyond because being in the one-up position, or the illusion of it, is essentially traumatic and disconnected, even though it feels good to those on top.

Expand full comment

Are you familiar with programs post WW2 that worked to de-radicalize the German people? Or in Serbia? How does power or control work in these scenarios? Seems like de radicalization is easier or a different process after a war, as the radicalized have been defeated at great cost, and have lost their power. Compared to South Africa where both parties agreed to change and evolve peacefully. But a difference in South Africa was both parties were willing participants in the reconciliation process to avoid continued and potential for escalations of political violence. Neither examples had the challenge of social media. To me, we are facing a huge challenge, as the other side is led by obstructionists or leaders only set on their complete rule.

Expand full comment

Given the number and diversity of Democratic candidates in 2020, how are we an oligarchy? It is true that an "establishment" candidate won the nomination--and the presidency--but he won because tens of millions of Americans who were offered very different choices voted for him. While it's true that money has a very disproportionate influence, that ought to be reduced sharply (let's hear it for public financing of campaigns), that's not the same as saying that we're under the thumb of oligarchs. Look at Russia, for comparison.

Expand full comment

Our democracy rating is at 5 on the scale of -10 to 10. North Korea being negative 10 and Canada and Switzerland are 10. We have slipped and are sliding the wrong way. Citizens United means that a few have more free speech than the many, and that’s not a democracy. If the voting rights act doesn’t pass, we will go to rating of 0 immediately and then who knows how fast to an authoritarian state.

Expand full comment

A democracy means everyone’s vote counts the same in each state, and have equal access to the ballot.

Expand full comment

Oh, think of 2020 as the past. The state laws have changed, so big differences in IF a democrat can win in red states, EVEN if they win the votes necessary, but now it is legal for state election officials to send whatever “legal” forgeries and false electors. And then there is gerrymandering to divide and dilute majority voters. This is Georgia and 19 other states today and why our rating has slid from 10 to 5.

Expand full comment

Have you read “The Shock Doctrine”?

Expand full comment

it's perfect.

Expand full comment

Exactly!

Expand full comment

No, enlighten me!

Expand full comment

Naomi Klein. How keeping the masses in a constant state of PTSD ( from war, chemical spills, disease ) allows the powerful to accrue more power.

Expand full comment

Add Climate disasters to that list.

Expand full comment

Naomi Klein explains this use of catastrophe in Shock Doctrine.

Expand full comment

“…living our lives one step from catastrophe, creates a pool of willing militants” Dr. Barbara Walter “How Civil Wars Start and how to stop them

Expand full comment

🙏

Expand full comment

Who are the authoritarians here, though? The ones who don’t want to force people to vaccinate, or the ones who do?

Expand full comment

Is that a serious question, or snark? Assuming you're serious, a couple of points: First, all organized societies have rules. You need to wear seatbelts. You can't open the emergency door while the plane is in flight. (Well, actually, it's a crime to open it at any time, unless there's a crash.) If you have a child entering kindergarten, she or he will need nine--count 'em, nine--vaccinations to go to school, not counting the one against Covid. Second, Justice Holmes famously observed that freedom of speech does not include the right to cry Fire! in a crowded theater. Those who believe that they should have the right to be unvaccinated--unless they are prepared to quarantine strictly, forever--are not saying that they have the right to cry Fire! They are saying that they have the right to carry fire into a crowded theater.

Expand full comment

Beware of trolls from the federalist society.

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

My point was to find out your reasoning as to why the anti-mandate position is more authoritarian than the mandate position.

Expand full comment

This is a sleight of hand twist on the actual point. Most of the discussion preceding your question does not propose mandates are more or less authoritarian - they are mostly saying there is a correlation between who takes an anti mask and vaccination mandate position and what their leadership views and styles are. The majority of the comments are about a correlation not about the status of mandates themselves. Besides, even if you view all restriction by laws, all mandates guided by expertise, and all requirements to do no harm to others as authoritarian (which would frankly be thick and un-nuanced, hopefully just for the sake of discussion) it is still perfectly possible to take a single more "authoritarian" stance (on a range of authoritarianism) and be less authoritarian over all if the purpose and observable out comes of the stance are in support of population movement toward less authoritarianism, and vice versa.

Expand full comment

Interesting fact: No European country has anything like as broad a vaccine mandate as Biden’s, except Austria. Are they all dangerously authoritarian and medically ignorant?

Expand full comment

I guess I have a broader concept of “authoritarian” than most people. I find it difficult to find any non-authoritarians in politics any more. And, yes, democracy can be quite authoritarian when it is devolves to mere majoritarianism.

Expand full comment

To start, almost all of those opposing mandates are not vaccinated.

Expand full comment

( it’s about protecting everyone’s health. AND our limited hospital capacity of less than 1 m hospital beds with less than 350,000 icu beds…. That are both already 85% full on average. The promise of the current variant is explosive spread, and as a principle of the Epidemiology of +RNA respiratory viruses that are prone to mutate (because the enzymes that correct mutations are only found in the cell nucleus NOT the cytoplasm) explosive spread promises the next variant, and repeat. Public Health is necessary to maintain school, business, security. Health of nations is directly proportional to the wealth of nations.

Expand full comment

Too bad for them, then, if that’s the case. But I know intelligent medical professionals who aren’t in favor of mandates either. They are vaccinated and so am I.

Expand full comment

Mandatory vaccinations are about collaborating for the common good. Libertarians have so polluted our culture with their sel-centered brand of narcissism that they have convinced preppie that good public health practice is tyranny! Ignorance and arrogance are a deadly combination!

Expand full comment

Do authoritarians in general take good care of their people?

Expand full comment

Well, sometimes. There is a place for it like you say and absolute no to your little kid it about to run across the street and you restrain them. But, to stick to my main focus these days, there is no gender equality in authoritarian regimes, and there is no racial justice either. There is a pyramid pecking order with 'servants' supporting those on top. And that's why we are getting so much push back from the right-wing. They don't want to lose their help mates whether they are female or of-color. Of course, there are many in those categories who slip through as long as the basic pyramid stays in place.

Expand full comment

No. They are self-centered!

Expand full comment

I really don't get this. Your argument seems sadly plausible.

Expand full comment

Do they think they will survive, to reach the top of the command chain they hope to create?

Expand full comment

The decisions coming out of the Supreme Court are frightening. In my 80 years, I have never felt so powerless. Being afraid of our Government is a new, eerie experience. We are in a time like no other, and I cling to the hope that people like you, Heather, can reach enough people to turn the tide. Thank you so much for sharing the facts as they play out day by day.

Expand full comment

Coming to the end of my 76th year on this planet, having marched, sat, written and called for so many causes, I feel betrayed. Waiting for the ice to melt so I can hop in my kayak and stop occasionally wringing my hands. Thank you, Heather Cox Richardson, for your clarity, which helps me to at least understand how we are at this shameful place in our government.

Expand full comment

What is now being experienced by the whole country is life in the south before 1965, one party rule. That party is made up of the same kind of people it has always been-white men with money. The name, R or D, does not matter. They could be called

the FuzzyWuzzy party and they would still operate to use the powers of government to enrich themselves and their donors. The US system of governance is having all its flaws and weaknesses exposed. The Constitution was a cobbled together document that could be passed at the time, and that took a while. Our government has relied on traditions and norms which relied on good character to be implemented, as Dr. Phil would say, “How’s that working for us today?”

The supreme court decisions are proof that “the law really is just man’s opinion.” Along with one token woman in the mold of Phyllis Schlafley.

Expand full comment

Well said, JennSH. Come to think of it, the Constitution was not made for most of us. Our push to make it so is an exercise in resilience and idealism. Power plays by shape-shifting rules. Figuring out how to battle it effectively is continuously the task at hand. Seeing through the veil of “death fear” take clarity and comprehension. I thank HCR for her diligence in providing that for us.

Expand full comment

👍👍👍

Expand full comment
Comment deleted
Expand full comment

How sadly true.

Expand full comment

Same thoughts here. I hadn’t put it into words, but reading your comment gave me a chill. I too am actually afraid,, I have lost the sense that heretofore had taken for granted…. I have always trusted my government, like a young child trusts their parents. Suddenly, I feel betrayed. Thank world according to TFG was harrowing enough,,but the reality of his poison is evident in the decisions of the Court in many issues!

It’s so sad, and I feel somewhat helpless….

Expand full comment

Find a teenager, preferably one turning 18 soon, and talk to them about voting. Encourage them to make their voice heard. Explain how to register, right down to where to get the registration form and when and where it needs to be submitted. Four million teens will turn 18 this year and if they all cast a vote it would have the force of a political tsunami.

Expand full comment

I have lived in Houston, TX, for the past 15 years and have worked with voter registration efforts for most of those years. Many different organizations in Harris County, including the local chapter of the League of Women Voters, continue to work tirelessly to reach high school seniors, contacting high school officials to obtain permission to attend some senior functions to explain and register those 18 and approaching 18 years of age.

It was interesting to watch leaders emerge in those circumstances. When attending a senior picnic, I approached a table of about 15 young women who all said no to registering until one courageous student stood up and said yes, and then all the others said yes. I don’t know if they actually went to the polls during the next election, but at least those 15 were registered and had heard my speech about using their voices to protect our democracy.

And whatever happened to Civics as a required course in high school?

Expand full comment

Absolutely the question of the hour! Every hour! I had a Civics class in 7th grade,? I remember really liking it. But that was it. That was in 1964!

When my daughter was in high school they had NOTHING! And when Obama was running for President I was appalled that there were no ‘mock debates’ as we had in HS, and even when he won there was not even any announcement, not even in her honors History class?!

How are these kids supposed to get exposed, much less get involved if their schools seem so indifferent?!

Expand full comment

I didnt' get any Civics in high school despite going to a good private school. But I did absorb it from my parents, beginning at age 7, from the 1960 election. I would argue over the presidential election with my friend Ralphie, whose grandfather had started Nordstrom's.

My father was an economist, and my mother had been all but dissertation when she decided to switch to psych.

My mother loved to tell this story--she was driving, with me and Ralphie in the car. I said to Ralphie, "you shouldn't vote for Nixon because he called that lady in California something like an economist"

(For those too young to remember this election, in an earlier election in which he ran against Helen Gahagan Douglas--who had been an actress--he called her a communist.)

On election night, my parents went out for the evening, leaving my brother--age 10--and me alone. They told us we could watch the election results on TV until it was called. I trundled off to bed around 10. When they got home at 3AM (6AM eastern), they found my brother bleary eyed but still watching.

Expand full comment

Ha! You make me remember my folks...every federal election, they would go to dinner, then a movie, and when they got out of the show they fond out the results! My Dad was a Republican, my Mom, a Democrat... they always were so excited but laughed about how they canceled each other out!!

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

I really don't think the solution to what we're going through in the USA is to vote harder. A Princeton study in 2014 made the bald case that we haven't been a democracy for a long time:

https://talkingpointsmemo.com/livewire/princeton-experts-say-us-no-longer-democracy

Expand full comment

we live in a kakistocracy. noun

government by the least suitable or competent citizens of a state.

"the danger is that this will reduce us to kakistocracy"

Expand full comment

And then there’s kleptokakistocracy, as above, but with the addition of governing in order to enrich themselves.

Expand full comment

I will read the article, but later… ugh

Expand full comment

We have that teen in our home. He voted in his first election for Biden. He had a friend whose family was far-right and convinced him how bad Trump was. He will not give up when he’s trying to persuade someone. My daughter was a great debater so I guess he got that trait from her. I hope he never loses that enthusiasm.

Expand full comment

Sharon, that’s great! I’m sure his enthusiasm is contagious!

Expand full comment

You surely are a proud Mama! You have done a good job there..good for you!

Expand full comment

I am very proud of him. He’s my grandson, my daughter passed away when he was 15. I have to give her most of the credit for teaching him to persevere and stand his ground. Some days I see so much of her in him that it both breaks my heart and gives me comfort. He’s a critical thinker. I think that’s something children don’t learn anymore because not many adults do it. They go along with the crowd and crumble under peer pressure.

Expand full comment

Your grandson gives me hope for the next generation..❣️

Expand full comment

Oh Sharon, your heart is surely so big with all the love and pain you’ve had, but surely all the love will offset the pain.

Expand full comment

I like to encourage voting. It is also important to revisit the ideals of our democracy and using critical thinking to make sure your vote goes to those that understand the common good as well as their own, possibly selfish interests.

Expand full comment

That’s a great idea…. I wonder if there is some way to do that in an organized way? If high schools would allow an outside organization to give a presentation and a question/answer session… like perhaps the League of Women Voters? Or…?

Expand full comment

Yes, the LWV in Tucson, anyway, has a program "Seeking Truth, Embracing Courage: A Youth Perspective of the National Day of Healing " Tuesday, January 18.

Expand full comment

Please encourage them to also educate themselves on the candidates. My step grandson voted in the last election (he was 20) & his review of candidates led him to believe that Trump was a good businessman & deserved another 4 years. If I had seen him before he voted, I hope I would have shed some light on his news sources. *sigh*

Expand full comment

Yes, we sat and discussed every candidate plus every proposition on the ballot. We all learned something from each other’s point of view and how to research.

Expand full comment

Excellent and important recommendation Lena!! Thanks for all you do!

Expand full comment

And of course explain why they have to vote for Democrats all the way down the ticket!

Expand full comment

Although tempted, we were instructed to never ever mention a party name when registering anybody and I didn't.

Expand full comment

That was a joke of course but these times may require different strategies

Expand full comment

got it...and you may be right.

Expand full comment

I feel the same way. Afraid of gov't. I want to wake up on Wednesday Nov. 9, 2016, to find that Hillary Clinton was elected and this trump stuff was all a horrible dream.

Expand full comment

oh brother! you and me both... I never thought this at the time, but looking back now I am 1000% POSITIVE that the 2016 election was stolen.. and of course the Russians got hi in there... why didn't we go full steam ahead to dig up the truth..or did we? ugh

Expand full comment

I understand all too well how you feel, Cynthia. But don't give up your power. Lena has a great suggestion. so do others, especially Ellie; also Jessica Craven in Chop Wood, Carry Water. You are not alone

Expand full comment

Thanks… I have been sad for so long,,,

Expand full comment

In the words of Robert Hubbell, “We have every reason to be hopeful but no reason to be complacent.” I’ll be sending good hopeful vibes your way all day, Cynthia.

Expand full comment

Oh thank you Mary B xxx Right back atcha!

Expand full comment

Cynthia, well put. I feel the same as you. Growing up I had the misguided notion that the government was looking out for us, all of us. I thought that were safeguards in place to protect us from chaos and evil. Learning now in my 63rd year, that is non existent. I thought it was bad under the last Administration, no, that was child's play compared to now. I had someone ask me the other day if life is better under Biden than Trump. I had to plea the 5th.

Expand full comment

I know...but I am a die-hard loyalist, and an ailing optimist... I can't give up on him yet... I think that so many of the problems reveal the prejudice, the greed, and the HUGE egos of so many of these republicans (i.e. Joe M and Krysten C for starters) and the outright evil of the Jim Jordans, Matt G., Kevin Mc, the ultimate blowhard, Kennedy (with. Ron Johnson right behind him) the two moronic teens: Marjorie and Lauren 'Bobo'...oh gawd, I could go on forever...) were there always this many truly extreme evil players in our leadership?

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Cynthia, I firmly believe that Biden will do everything possible to right this ship. That it his passion. I fear for what will happen next that he can't stop.

Expand full comment

Until recently, I used to think of the Supreme Court as a bulwark against crazy, thoughtfully considering cases and using good judgment and our bank of laws to rule. Not anymore. I respected those placed on the SC. Until Clarence Thomas, a guy with an oversized grudge.

Expand full comment

And his wife?!?! Have you read about her!?!

Expand full comment

🤬🤯 and I will NEVER forgive Danforth for his nomination of CT and how he stood by him during the hearings.

Expand full comment

Talk about conflict of interest!

Expand full comment

Since it is now 100% clear that corruption has taken over the Supreme Court, how long are we destined for the destruction of true values (not just American) to be modus operandi.

Expand full comment

The SCOTUS conservatives' reasoning (or lack of it) is mind boggling. I take some comfort in their childishness, which hopefully can be outsmarted. Indeed our country seems hell-bent on having a contest between unfettered might vs. common sense. It's like second graders with weapons vs. unarmed adults. The Jan 6th insurrection was an example writ large.

Expand full comment

they are really in their own world... like a hybrid fraternity/sorority who are only allowed to talk to each other so they can all stick together...(or a select part of the group that is.....grrrr)

Expand full comment

Amen and amen!!! Another frightened elder............

Expand full comment

You are Not Alone Anna!!! Believe me!!

In my 65yrs, I have never felt the way I do Now!!

But, I truly Believe, GOOD does, and will, overcome Evil.

It's just the When and How is the Question!!!

EVIL WILL GET WHAT'S COMING TO THEM!!!🤔🗽

Expand full comment

I still believe that...but I feel like I am sliding down a greased pole...

Expand full comment

Neither hail, nor gale nor dark of night can stay this historian from her appointed rounds.

Expand full comment

HCR's self appointed and widely appreciated circumnavigation of the political sphere.

Expand full comment

Best post of the morning, Christopher!

Expand full comment

Morning, Daria...agree wholeheartedly!

Expand full comment

Morning, Lynell!🌷

Expand full comment

So, hospitals accept federal dollars and therefore the federal government, i.e. the administration, can lawfully mandate vaccination, by a 5/4 vote of the supreme court. What about other institutions, particularly public institutions that accept federal dollars? I'll bet that the NY city subway accepted federal dollars at some point in it's construction. How about airports? Not airplanes per-se, but the airports themselves? And bus systems, other forms of transportation? How about those institutions that have borrowed from federal programs? Isn't that a connection to the federal government? In my state, 3 in 10 adults have not been vaccinated. Omicron takes 3 days or more to produce symptoms. We are still in the up-swing on this particular surge in the pandemic. I'm pretty much guaranteed to come within shouting distance of an infected individual in any grocery store, mall, other public place where people congregate. I'm vaccinated and boosted, but also have a pre-existing condition putting me in a high-risk category for complications of a coronavirus infection. I would like to be protected by the law in any place that has accepted federal dollars in construction or operation. If a grocery store sells US stamps, that's enough for me. Any financial institution that invests some of its deposits in federal funds, borrows from the treasury, accepts federal deposit insurance is enough connection for me.

If I can't rely on local, regional, state or federal regulatory protection against a potentially deadly epidemic illness, perhaps I should simply carry a yellow flag and a wear a t-shirt with large letters, saying "if you're not vaccinated, please step away; I am at enhanced risk of your as-yet undiagnosed, asymptomatic COVID infection." Why are governments allowed to set the speed limit on any public street, but aren't allowed to protect me against potentially lethal exposure to potentially infectious people, who haven't taken the only effective steps themselves against the infection? I'm exercising all reasonable precautions to protect others and myself from contracting the virus, not the least of which is simply staying home unless it's absolutely necessary to be out in public, but like most of the country, I'm past "done" with it. Anywhere that vaccination is the ticket for entry, I'll be willing to patronize. Wouldn't it be something if large private companies might put safety before profits and post signs saying "if you're not vaccinated, please shop elsewhere"? What if commercial property owners would post similar requests at the parking garage entrance to their multi-tenant buildings? On the first floor elevator doors? Perhaps we should turn Dr. Suess on his head and become the "Sneeches with (vaccination) Stars"? What will it take to persuade people to do the right thing, if mandates are so deplorable?

Expand full comment

Nathan, I agree with and empathize with you. A bit of good news is that students across the nation are protesting the dangers they are being subjected to every time they enter a school building. They are walking out!

https://amp.usatoday.com/amp/6517812001

Expand full comment

These kids are our future who will change the trajectory of where our precious nation is headed for. Bless them!

Expand full comment

That’s right. They have the good sense to know their lives are at risk and are taking action to protect themselves. How devalued they must feel by those who have sabotaged their safety! And yes indeed, bless them!

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Nathan, GREAT POINT!

Has not the Federal Reserve, every night since April of 2020, purchased Corporate bonds in the overnight bond market to "stabilize" (i.e. provide welfare to corporations), the debt markets??

Yes they have. EVERY CORPORATION IN AMERICA has Federal support.

GREAT POINT>

Expand full comment

"Why are governments allowed to set the speed limit on any public street".

I don't know if you have noticed but Republicans in giant pickup trucks sucking 8 mpg are blowing through stop signs and racing on the streets all over the USA.

Mostly, they are just crashing their trucks and putting themselves in the hospital but once in a while they blow through a stop sign and waste somebody else.

It is the new badge of being a Republican. Crashing a giant truck.

Expand full comment

It would probably be more effective to wear a shirt reading CONTAGIOUS.

Expand full comment

Nathan, I'm with you 1000%. Excellent points.

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Nathan, I loved your comment. One of the reasons I did was the following: 'I should simply carry a yellow flag and a wear a t-shirt with large letters, saying "if you're not vaccinated, please step away; I am at enhanced risk of your as-yet undiagnosed, asymptomatic COVID infection." One caveat to your t-shirt is that the message is probably too long to be printed in large letters.

Another reason for loving your comment is that you write the farce of America making it clear that it is real life in America. Naturally, it is worse than farce, it is a tragedy dressed up as farce.

The first part of Nathan's last sentence, 'What will it take to persuade people to do the right thing...?' That's the kicker, perhaps, nothing will.

Thank you, Nathan.

Expand full comment

Thanks for the kind words; In the days that 9 judges deliberated, I wonder if any of them raised the issue that federal influence is deeply entwined in industry/commerce at all levels. Drawing a distinction with health care facilities is really an arbitrary line, not something supported by a strong legal argument, much less by common sense. there's a point at which the grocery store is every bit as pivotal to public health as a hospital; about 3 weeks after the trucks stop running to down-town Manhattan, Chicago, Philadelphia, LA, etc. How many federal subsidies are attached to those corn chips in the nacho's you'll enjoy while staying in to quarantine from your last exposure from the co-worker who thinks he knows better than the CDC?

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Nathan, Frustrating, isolating, challenging, infuriating and dangerous as this time is -- cogent comments, such as yours, light the mind and bring a smile.

Expand full comment

Sadly Fern you are correct.

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Nathan, I agree fully. I have put myself back in lockdown again while I wait to be eligible for my booster (for me, it’s a fourth shot) which I will get on Monday. I’m angry that I have to do this. I’m not riding my horses - because there are unvaccinated people riding without masks on at my barn. I had just started back riding after my bout with cancer, and I’m mad about it.

I have been thinking about the increased power that labor is seeing these days. Surely, corporations will see much higher absenteeism with unvaccinated employees, and surely, employees could refuse to work in a workplace that puts them in close contact with unvaccinated coworkers. Wouldn’t the fact that employers can choose to mandate or not, put them at risk of lawsuits for workplace-acquired infection? Although I have no idea how one would prove that.

Expand full comment

I gotta say, I’m all on board with being vaccinated but a booster every few months is unsustainable. Plus, I suspect a law of diminishing returns. We need to figure something else out to keep you safe. If people won’t even get one shot, there’s no way they’re going to get one every quarter. But it sure would be a boon for big pharma if they can continue to persuade us it’s the only possible way.

Expand full comment

I personally would get vaccinated every damn week if I needed to. Unfortunately, the other tools we have to get out of the pandemic have been neutralized. We know that masks work. But we can’t mandate them, either.

At the beginning of the pandemic, I thought we’d see a series of rolling two-three week lockdowns, triggered by positivity rates and hospital capacity. But we aren’t capable of doing that either. What else is there, besides vaccination? I can only do my part by trying as hard as I can to stay out of the hospital. Luckily, I like my husband’s company 🤣

Expand full comment

I don’t know what there is besides vaccination but I also know that the people who could figure it out aren’t really incentivized to try. Also, please understand I agree that vaccination is one of the most important tools in the toolbox. It’s just that if it’s our only tool, we won’t get the job done. Masks and the new meds are other tools but I just wonder if there are others we’re not even imagining now.

Expand full comment

Beth, I disagree. The people who could figure it out are being hounded out of their jobs (witness Dr. Amy Acton in Ohio) or vilified in the Senate and the right wing media. We know how to do this, we just can’t do it. The economy takes precedence over public health.

Expand full comment

That’s not what I’m talking about. I’m talking about pharmaceutical companies who have no incentive to continue to investigate options. They found ONE (imperfect) solution and have zero interest in supporting intellectual curiosity about other options. That we know of. But I have little faith in the corporate structure. I understand they’ve been developing the pills but that’s not preventative. That’s responsive. A defense not an offense. Re: watching things on YouTube, I’m a nope. Especially in relation to politics or healthcare. For the record and in case it hasn’t been clear, my POV is that economics and corporate manipulation are what we should be keeping an eye on as it relates to the fate of this country. Thank you, Kathy. I’ve appreciated your responses. But this has now taken too much of my time so I’ll sign off. Wishing you continued good health.

Expand full comment

If you want to know how I feel, spend two minutes listening to The Politics Girl: https://youtu.be/iJ8H5y-o8jw

Expand full comment

How about COVID funds being used by states to build state prisons, or to fund ANTI vax programs in the schools.

Expand full comment

"Meanwhile, Biden is deploying another 1000 military personnel to hospitals, which are overwhelmed with unvaccinated coronavirus patients."

It goes beyond comprehension that six individuals have the power to make decisions on such a massive life and death issue: first, they have no medical expertise, and second, two of them were forced onto the court willy-nilly by a non-president and his vindictive lackeys -- plus, both lied under oath. It is time for the judicial branch of government to look deep within and assess its oaths of office. The justices are not elected by the people, and yet, they are supposed to come to their positions with higher standards, unique knowledge, and a more elevated code of justice, integrity and conscience. Where are those standards? Where is that knowledge? And, the Force help us, but where are the signs of their elevated code of justice, integrity and conscience?

Now, one thousand military lives are put in jeopardy to assist in the fight of a lifetime -- a medical battle that has killed almost one million US citizens. In my eyes, this quasi-illigitimate, right-wing Supreme Court of the US has lost face, basic gravitas, and honor over the past two years!

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Rowshan, thank you for your comment. You bring up the very good point that the quality of expertise and integrity on the Supreme Court Bench is lacking in some of the members. The most expeditious solution: Term Limits. That way we can make sure that our judiciary AND elected officials remain relevant and fluid and that each person's vote actually counts for something. Those whose term expires would still able to act in an advisory capacity but we wouldn't be stuck with lifetime appointees and the likes of bad actors like McConnell. Those who are dedicated civil servants could use their expertise in other roles. We have seen the results of an entrenched 2 party system with no term limits, it doesn't work. If our system functioned the way it was imagined we would not be in the mess we find ourselves today – issues that have dogged us for centuries would have been resolved. It boils down to this, people will resist the notion of term limits for federal office holders with the excuse that we've never done it that way before. Isn't it time we look at what our open ended term structure hath wrought, in real terms? And aren't we grateful that the office of president has term limits?

Expand full comment

“And aren't we grateful that the office of president has term limits?” ‼️‼️

Expand full comment

But weren't we grateful for 4 term FDR

Expand full comment

Now, that was a President.

Expand full comment

It won't, if you-know-who gets himself back in. He talked about this throughout his four years of rallies, which is how he spent his time when not on the golf course or in a presidential aircraft.

Expand full comment

Lordy, I can't even imagine otherwise.

Expand full comment

‼️‼️‼️

Expand full comment

Hi Daria. I like your comment, even though I have never liked the idea of term limits for elected officials for the simple reason that I want to be able to vote for the best would-be representative, senator, president, mayor, dog-catcher, whatever, best able -- in my opinion -- to do a good job of governing. regardless of age or tenure or anything else. I believe that being able to win an election is no guarantee of either competence or righteousness, and experience should not be wasted. But I agree with you that term limits for SCOTUS justices is a good idea, and not just because our current Court is loaded with bible-hugging miscreants.

Right now the predominant SCOTUS mind-set is that they must not interpret the Constitution but simply apply it as they believe it was intended by the Founders to be applied, end of discussion, even though historians have dedicated lifetimes to understanding the real intentions of the founders without ever reaching some final verdict beyond dispute. Also, the fact that there is an amendment procedure written into the Constitution suggests flexibility, even mutability, as part of the Founders' original intent, so it follows that they knew no constitution could be perfect or that any decision of the Court could be more than temporarily definitive. They knew the world would become a different place sooner or later, and that the Court would need to keep pace.

So, it's better to have some orderly turnover to keep justices well tuned-in to America's present circumstances, and I suggest the following: Rolling ten-year terms, one justice enters, another retires each year. Also, to cast the tie-breaking vote as necessary, all living retired justices could vote on the tie-breaking vote in the case of a 5-5 deadlock. This would permit the Court to be "of" its moment in history, but it would be left to no single justice to cast the deciding vote, only the group of wise old former justices.

Just an idea that jumped into my head a couple of minutes ago.

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

David, I like your idea very, very much!

Expand full comment

Then somebody needs to convince older justices to retire before they expire.

Expand full comment

I agree. Completely.

Expand full comment

Trump did that!

Expand full comment
Jan 16, 2022·edited Jan 16, 2022

David, I love your ideas for SCOTUS. You should start submitting them far and wide - put them out there to see if you can seed some change. Plus, I see you have sneaked another justice in there! I do think term limits for representatives is not a bad idea however - I understand your position, but feel like there is enough advantage to fresh ideas, fresher ideals and less time for normalization of small moral rule bending to build up along with enough other talent waiting for opportunity to make the small loss of a few years' experience to be worth it. Perhaps a term limit beyond which a few years off were required before return would be a compromise?

Expand full comment

Sure, Yehawes, that's a compromise I could accept, but stricter laws regarding corruption and campaign finance, coupled with a Constitutional distinction between corporate and personal free speech would make me happier.

Expand full comment

I would have liked Biden to have appointed a committee on the second day in office to take the past administration's actions day by day and examine them, identify all the places governmental actions on all levels are bound only by honor or precedence and not by legal restriction, and write up laws to be handed back to Congress to consider passing, that would close those windows on corruption. (On the first day he'd have appointed one to work on ways to pass voter protection laws).

Expand full comment

Daria Even were term limits passed in Congress (oh yeah), they would affect current justices.

Expand full comment

How would it even happen? (Term limits for SCOTUS)?

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Rowshan,

The conservatives on the Supremee Court are just doing the bidding of those who have purchased them. Corporations.

It is the most significant flaw in our system. Corporations buying court members and representatives.

Expand full comment

IMHO, SCOTUS was bought by the Federalist Society to do it's bidding to accomplish Court Capture by allowing Citizens United to go forth and to accomplish it's goal to destroy the government from within.

Expand full comment

Barbara, I completely agree and would add that the Federalist Society is funded by Corporations.

Expand full comment

I would say that the Federalist Society endangers the country.

Expand full comment

Along with that corporation called FOX Entertainment News

Expand full comment

They buy most of our leaders!

Expand full comment

When I think of RBG's dogged struggle to stay alive, just to stay alive, to stave this off - and she had barely breathed her last when her smug little replacement stood simpering at a superspreader event in the mutilated Rose Garden. The fat orange fraud and his wife stood nervously beside the coffin until the chant of VOTE HIM OUT became too loud and unmistakeable, and he turned tail and slunk away. Or, stole away, since there's so much talk of stealing. The will of the people? The people's will wasn't what got him "elected" in the first place. It was unequivocally expressed in November 2020, and it's got nothing to do with what's happening now. Weimar 1933.

Expand full comment
Jan 15, 2022·edited Jan 15, 2022

Anne, I do think RBG allowed her ego to get just a bit in the way of doing what I would have done: Resign under Obama and go, finally, spend some time with her kids.

But, she just could not do it nor is it required (but, those guys should NOT be allowed to sleep on the bench until they are dead, which, is what RBG actually did).

Expand full comment

As much as I admired RBG, I have to agree. The venerable RBG was an elderly cancer survivor a few times over. While she worked relentlessly to stay in shape and stay sharp, she expired under the worst possible President. We do need term limits for the Supremes. The same goes for Senators. Chuck Grassley and Diane Feinstein come immediately to mind.

Expand full comment

And oh-so many others, Catherine!

Expand full comment

Yes, sad to say, but we’d be in a different situation if she had resigned. A dreadful mistake on her part…

Expand full comment

But, Mike, Mitch the Merciless would NOT have allowed Obama to appoint a justice. As he clearly demonstrated. For all we know, RBG was pressured to hang on, hang in.

Expand full comment

Being somewhat of a computer nerd, I'd say the US of Anxiety needs an upgraded operating system. The current version does not support the new apps.

Expand full comment

A new motto for the SCOTUS: I’m not a judge but I play one on TV for the former president.

Expand full comment

HAHAHAHAHA!

Expand full comment

Pretty much true...

Expand full comment

As currently constituted, SCOTUS is illegitimate.

Expand full comment

is there anything we can do about it?

Expand full comment

Cynthia, My understanding is that in 1789 when the high court was first seated there were 5 justices plus 1 Chief Justice, each of whom presided over 1 of the 6 federal circuit courts. Today, because there are 13 federal circuit courts and only 9 Supremes, the high court accepts fewer cases. I would imagine, invoking precedent, that one convincingly could argue both to expand the high court to 13 and also to add judges to the lower courts. I would note that at some point there were 10 Supremes, though I don’t find that point particularly relevant. I also would add that the person who comes to mind, who is truly knowledgeable in this area, is Robert Reich, who served as Secretary of Labor in the Clinton Administration and currently teaches at Stanford University. I believe he quite recently launched a project to test the constitutionality of the filibuster.

Expand full comment
Jan 16, 2022·edited Jan 16, 2022

I thought Reich was teaching at Berkeley....not that it matters.

Expand full comment

Betsy, You’re right. Still, because he once taught at Brandeis in my home state, at least I didn’t screw up on the coast.

Expand full comment

Since the RNC is taking care of Trump’s pre - office legal bills, maybe we can get them to foot the cost of this deployment. They’re his justices…

Expand full comment

Yesterday, I spent several hours at a local school vaccinating students, parents, and staff against COVID-19. The cost to the school district? $0.00. The cost to the state government? $0.00, as the federal government has picked up the tab. The school nurse told me that earlier that fall, fully 1/3 of the teachers and staff had been out at some point with COVID-19 or had to quarantine because someone in their household was COVID-19 positive. Those costs must have run into hundreds of thousands of dollars. I do not believe the costs to US businesses to vaccinate employees is greater than having large portions of their workforce out sick/quarantining for extended periods.

As for the non-delegation doctrine, it sounds like something straight out of a symposium on dysfunctional relationships. Have you ever worked with/for someone who refused/did not know how to delegate? What ensues is not pretty. Neither the judicial nor the legislative branches of government can enforce laws and regulations. That is the executive branch's function. The irony here is that the legislative branch used the judicial branch to thwart enforcement of a public health measure by the executive branch. Sounds a lot like de facto delegation to me. This cynical thwarting of public health measures in the guise of states rights is cart-before-the-horse wrong headed, BAD for the economy, and deadly.

Expand full comment

Steve- thank you for the work that you do!

Expand full comment

You are a hero among heroes giving these vaccines and I thank you for that. You are right about “de facto delegation”. We, The People, must come out in droves, to fight this authoritarian takeover. We must not be powerless but be powerful. We cannot think there is nothing that we cannot do because we can! We can continuously get the word out about voting and justice. We will demand that our representatives actually represent the people who elected them. We just have to!

Expand full comment

Sadly, the purpose of the non-delegation rule is to eliminate most regulations, not philosophical purity. Modern life has become so complex that there is no practical way Congress could ever formulate necessary regulation, and this Congress, which cannot agree on the color of the sky, could ever come up with a single rule. Rescinding FDR’s New Deal has been a goal of the Republicans since he was in office.

Expand full comment

Steve, you have described a very important principle of autocratic/authoritarian strategies and practices - 'non-delegation' - by illustrating how one branch of government can lesson and or strip another of delegating power -- disrupting the chain of decision making. It is a strategy to consolidate power into the hands of a small group. At its core 'non-delegation' vastly limits the rights and voices of citizens to have a role government. The work of the state legislatures to limit access to voting and nullify the results by placing partisan politicians in positions to change voting results is a brother of non-delegation in the consolidation of power to the few. As it spreads so does the country lose self-government as its founding principle.

Expand full comment

Fern--I answered your post to me personally but got it bounced back. Perhaps the thread is too long or too old, so I hunted you down. Thanks for the link--excellent and appreciated.

I spent the day yesterday pulling years of photos from my own books and one I inherited from my Dad. I have taken many photos over the years, but my brother was 12 years older than me. I found some of his childhood pictures in the book from my Dad. Then helped my niece and nephew with the arrangements, but much had already been done. His wife passed a bit over 4 years ago and he had already lost much of his memory. When he and the kids made her arrangements, he went ahead and made many of his at the same time.

So next Friday we will have the wake, who knows how it will go in the time of COVID. He was a police officer, a member of a Pipe and Drum Corp, well known and loved in his community. In normal times, the place would be packed. Now, I have no idea.

I'm actually pretty okay--as the song went, take a sad song and make it better. There was no hope for a cure in his lifetime, but he lived a good life. The celebration of his life really will be turning a sad song into a "better" one.

While I so appreciate this letter and forum, depending upon my mood, sometimes the comments weigh me down so much as I think I'm unable to become an expat. I'm too close to my kids and family. And what might happen truly terrifies me. For that reason, I only skimmed the letter today and until now, avoided the comment section.

Expand full comment

Miselle, It was precious to read every word you wrote. I hope that you and the family can spend time together, particularly, in the next month or two. Do what works for you. I go through periods when I don't want to even see the forum. Nutrition is important from food, sleep, good company and, yes, music. You are under no obligation to LFAA or to read a newspaper. It was good to hear of you brother and that he was loved by the community. You are close to your children and family -- that is wonderful. I wish that I was a DJ. It would be fun to link all kinds of music to you. Maybe you'd find some music that gives you a different lift. Let's stay in touch Miselle. My new signoff, 'That's what friends are for!'

Expand full comment

Good morning, Fern. That was a good choice, it is a favorite song of mine--and while it was playing, I was thinking that what I will remember as my "final" memory of my brother is me putting up his 3' Christmas tree and singing goofy holiday songs and making him laugh. His last full sentence to me "you're really doing lot!" (That was big for him) As you know, people with dementia often respond well to music.

Early in November, my dear nephew had the thought to get some of my brother's former Pipe and Drum corps to come to his facility to play. (My nephew used to be in it too, he dropped out when his job/small children/move to IN made it too difficult) He got about a dozen to show up and the reaction of my brother was priceless. He was mesmerized. It was so poignant to see. It was worth the effort to get my brother in his wheelchair and down to the lobby, he was so weak and bloated that it took my nephew, my husband and niece to help/lift him while I maneuvered the chair under him.

I have read Heather's letter today but didn't feel like commenting at all. Sometimes this wait on justice, pandemic, legislation changes, etc seems like the pregnancy that never ends---and I fear that "Rosemary's Baby" could be the end result.

A good MLK day to you. One of my HS teacher daughters came home to spend the weekend, and while not an academic, my husband is employed by a university and also has a holiday. A good day to get some larger home cleaning projects done that are almost pleasant when done as a team.

Expand full comment

Thank you for sharing your memories with me. They are vivid, touching and loving. We both have cleaning to do. On we go! Salud, Miselle.

Expand full comment

I would say that Gorsuch, who endangered Justic